List alphabetically by lead author's surname (i.e. the surname that appears first in the work quoted).
While conventions of use of italics, quotations etc. will vary according to the media, the basic structure is as follows:
Entries should follow alphabetical order of author surname.
References by more than one author always follow single author references.
Punctuation should be as follows:
Richardson, A. (1988)
Richardson, A. (1989a)
Richardson, A. (1989b)
Richardson, A. and Brown, B., (1988)
Richardson, A. and Smith, S., (1986)
Richardson, A., Brown, B. and Smith, S. (1983)
Ingram, T.N., Schwepker, C.H. and Hutson, D. (1992)
Ingram, T.N., Laforge, R.W., Schwepker, C.H. Jr, Avila, R.A. and Williams, M.R. (1997)
Ingram, T.N., Laforge, R.W., Avila, R.A. and Schwepker, C.H. Jr and Williams, M.R. (2001)
Abbott, A. (1988), System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Patton, M.Q. (1990), Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods , 2nd ed., Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Bourdieu, P.(1977), "The forms of capital", in Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, Greenwood Press, New York, NY, pp. 311-56.
Bourdieu, P. (1977), Outline of a Theory of Practice, translated by Nice, R., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986), "The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, pp. 1173-82.
Guthrie, J. and Parker, L. (1997) "Editorial: Celebration, reflection and a future: a decade of AAAJ", Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal , Vol. 10 No.1, pp. 3-8
NB this refers to a source which is only available electronically, and not to sources which you may have accessed electronically but which are also available in print form, such as an article from an Emerald journal accessed via the Web.
These follow the same convention of referencing as for printed sources, but include elements unique to the Web:
For the last two elements, please try to remember the following conventions:
Better Business Bureau (2001), "Third-party assurance boosts online purchasing", available at: http://bbbonline.org/about/press/2001/101701.asp (accessed 7 January 2002).
Hummingbird (2002), Hummingbird corporate website, available at: www.hummingbird.com (accessed 2 January 2002).
Leeds Metropolitan University (2002), "Business Start-Up@Leeds Met", available at: www.lmu.ac.uk/city/bus_startup.htm
Pitkow, J. and Kehoel, C. (1997), "GVU's WWW user surveys", available at: www.gvu.gatech.edu
Ballantyne, D. (2000), "Dialogue and knowledge generation: two sides of the same coin in relationship marketing", paper presented at the 2nd WWW Conference on Relationship Marketing, November 1999-February 2000, Monash University and MCB University Press, available at: www.mcb.co.uk/services/conferen/nov99/rm/paper3.html
An electronic journal would be referenced as follows:
Swaminathan, V., Lepkoswka-White, E. and Rao, B.P. (1999), "Browsers or buyers in cyberspace? An investigation of electronic factors influencing electronic exchange", Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 5 No. 2, available at: www. ascusc.org/ jcmc/vol5/ issue2/
Some papers may not be published in journals but may be delivered at a conference and then published as part of the proceedings of that conference, in which case, use one of the following styles as appropriate.
Lodi, E., Veseley, M. and Vigen, J. (2000), "Link managers for grey literature", New Frontiers in Grey Literature, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Grey Literature, Washington, DC, October 4-5, 1999, GreyNet, Amsterdam, pp. 116-34.
Naude, P. and Holland, C. (1998), "Marketing in the information domain", in Halinen-Kaila, A. and Nummela, N. (Eds), Interaction, Relationships and Networks: Visions for the Future, Proceedings of the 14th Annual IMP Conference, pp. 245-62.
Stauss, B. and Weinlich, B. (1995), "Process-oriented measurement of service quality by applying the sequential incident technique", paper presented at the Fifth Workshop on Quality Management in Services, EIASM, Tilburg.
Strandvik, T. and Storbacka, K. (1996), "Managing relationship quality", paper presented at the QUIS5 Quality in Services Conference, University of Karlstad, Karlstad.
As you see, some of the above references give the date of the conference, others do not; if in doubt, follow the convention used by the conference.
Particularly when writing a case study, you may want to refer to company or government documents. In which case, the organization may become the author and the form of entry would be as follows:
Apollo Enterprises (1993), Annual Report , p. 8.
Ernst and Ernst (1978), Social Responsibility Disclosure: 1978 Survey, Ernst and Ernst, Cleveland, OH.
Bank of England (2003), Quarterly Report on Small Business Statistics, Bank of England, London.
Department for Trade and Industry (DTI) (2002), White Paper on Enterprise, Skills and Innovation, DTI, London.
European Commission (1998), Fostering Entrepreneurship in Europe: Priorities for the Future, European Commission, Brussels.
Yorkshire Forward (1999), Regional Economic Strategy, Yorkshire Forward, Leeds.
If all the above seems complicated, it's worth remembering that the Harvard system is actually quite logical. Bear in mind the following guidelines: