From: Circuit World, volume: 37 issue: 1
This study investigates the use of ultrasound in the permanganate part of the desmear process as an enabling technology to reduce the amount of energy required and chemicals used in this essential step in the PCB manufacturing sequence. The work builds on previous studies which have shown that ultrasound, at an optimized frequency and power, can bring about significant surface modification on a range of non-conductive materials.
From: Circuit World, volume: 36 issue: 4 pp18-21, 2010
This paper presents details of the plasma printing and packaging technology (P3T), a new reel-to-reel technology under development for cost-effective and resource efficient manufacture of flexible printed circuits. A unique feature of the flexible circuit manufacturing technology presented here is the combination of the additive-technique, the absence of vacuum processes, the continuous production mode and the ability to process polymer carrier films with widths of 400 mm.
From: Sensor Review, volume: 30 issue: 4 pp305-313, 2010
This paper investigates the disadvantages of traditional sensors and establishes a new structure for pressure measurement.
From: International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, volume: 3 issue: 3 pp431-448, 2010
Cost estimation based on human judgement is not an ideal approach, since human decisions are usually determined according to general attributes of limited and unstructured experience. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic model of intelligence and cognitive science-based method that can play an active role in process cost prediction within the shortest possible time. This is the first time an expert system has been developed for the process industry that can calculate the process cost within a few days or a few hours before making an offer to a buyer.
From: COMPEL, volume: 29 issue: 5 pp1309-1324, 2010
About 85 per cent of the wind turbine market is composed of wind turbines equipped with squirrel-cage and wound-rotor type induction generators. In wind turbine systems, variations in turbine speed and load are common phenomena. These variations affect the stator frequency of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG), which in turn influences the magnitude of the machine impedances. Consequently, the AC current produced has a tendency to concentrate near the outer part or "skin" of the machine conductor. This is known as the skin effect. As a result, the leakage flux in a squirrel-cage rotor bar in an induction machine tends to crowd towards the top of the bar adjacent to the air gap which has an impact on the dynamic behaviour of the machine. This paper describes how a model of an SEIG considering saturation and skin effect has been developed and applied to aluminum- and copper-rotor machines of similar power ratings to analyse their performance.
From: Circuit World, volume: 36 issue: 3 pp23-27, 2010
This paper highlights key points to consider when developing ultra-small micro drill bits. The presented points can provide an overall understanding of the challenges and solutions during ultra-small micro drill bit design. Additionally, the authors present a solution for packaging substrate ultra-small hole processing by mechanical drilling.
From: Microelectronics International, volume: 27 issue: 2 pp84-92, 2010
The current, growing demand for higher frequency electronic devices in applications such as consumer wireless communications, defence, automotive, computer, and medical industries has generated a marked increase in the use of the microwave frequency spectrum. However, in some cases, small electronics manufacturing companies and small educational institutions around the world do not have the research budget or technical resources to carry out projects, research and development in the microwave spectrum. The purpose of this paper is to share valuable information about low-cost microwave circuit research with academic and industrial communities that work, or want to work, in this field.
From: COMPEL, volume: 29 issue: 4 pp1015-1021, 2010
One of the most common diseases is one of movement of organs, especially those which are connected with legs and knee joints, such as arthritis or pseudo-arthritis. There are many conventional methods of treatment in such cases, but newer treatments, such as magnetotherapy, are also being developed. While there is some fundamental research on the method and its effects in human organisms, the parameters of physical treatment are still selected by intuition rather than from a bank of proved data. This paper aims to clarify the method/methodology of establishing a computer model of the electromagnetic therapy connected with knee joint problems. Two cases are considered: the arthritis of the knee and the fracture of bone. In both cases the analysis of eddy current distribution in the knee is made, giving results which can be helpful to doctors and physiologists in the planning of treatment.
From: Circuit World, volume: 36 issue: 2 pp33-39, 2010
Improved visibility throughout the enterprise life cycle of both product and process performance is vital for the UK's manufacturing survival. For example, companies making avionics products use quality components and employ a combination of automated processes, but have a product and production volume variety that typically necessitates a substantial amount of manual intervention (i.e. inter-process transportation, assembly of odd-form components, and wiring and rework). The purpose of this paper is to present an update of and the latest results from work on a project aimed at monitoring electronic products during the whole life cycle with embedded wireless components.
From: COMPEL, volume: 29 issue: 2, 2010
3D medical image segmentation refers to the extraction of interesting regions (including normal anatomy structures and lesion tissues) from 3D data that are "heaped" by 2D medical sectional image sequences. The 3D image segmentation of human tissues and organs is an important premise for medical image analysis and diagnosis, and is also a key research issue in 3D visualization technology for medical images. In this paper, a new segmentation method for 2D image sequences is presented.