Previously published as: Police Studies: Intnl Review of Police Development
Incorporates: American Journal of Police
Online from: 1997
Subject Area: Industry and Public Sector Management
|Title:||An analysis of alternatives to New York City's current marijuana arrest and detention policy|
|Author(s):||Bruce D. Johnson, (Institute for Special Populations Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, New York, USA), Andrew Golub, (Institute for Special Populations Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, New York, USA), Eloise Dunlap, (Institute for Special Populations Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, New York, USA), Stephen J. Sifaneck, (Berkeley College, New York, New York, USA)|
|Citation:||Bruce D. Johnson, Andrew Golub, Eloise Dunlap, Stephen J. Sifaneck, (2008) "An analysis of alternatives to New York City's current marijuana arrest and detention policy", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 31 Iss: 2, pp.226 - 250|
|Keywords:||Arrest, Criminal justice, Drugs, Policing, Quality of life, United States of America|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/13639510810878703 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
|Acknowledgements:||Preparation of this paper was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01 DA/CA13690-05), from the Marijuana Policy Project, and by National Development and Research Institutes. Points of view and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the positions of these funding organizations nor National Development and Research Institutes. The authors acknowledge with appreciation the contributions to this paper by Flutura Bardhi, Luther Elliott, Jan Moravék, and Kevin Sabet.|
Purpose – During the 1990s, the New York City Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (QOL) policing initiative. The purpose of this paper is to examine the pros and cons of the current policy and compare it with possible alternatives including: arrest and issuing of a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issuing of a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and toleration of public marijuana smoking.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews several studies of QOL policing and examines the pros and cons of the current NYPD policy, compared to possible alternatives.
Findings – The number of NYPD arrests for marijuana in public view (MPV) (with most detained for one or two days) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid-2000s. Most of these arrestees (84 percent) were minority; Blacks were 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than Whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities received more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.
Originality/value – The paper recommends that the NYPD change to routinely issuing DATs to reduce detention for marijuana violators. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking MPV into a violation (non-criminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings, as in Britain. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the number detained and the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.
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