Previously published as: Environmental Management and Health
Online from: 2003
Subject Area: Environmental Management/Environment
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|Title:||Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment: Focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables|
|Author(s):||Masood Sadiq Butt, (Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan), Kamran Sharif, (Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan), Babar Ehsan Bajwa, (Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan), Abdul Aziz, (Fruits and Vegetables Section, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan)|
|Citation:||Masood Sadiq Butt, Kamran Sharif, Babar Ehsan Bajwa, Abdul Aziz, (2005) "Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment: Focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 16 Iss: 4, pp.338 - 346|
|Keywords:||Metals, Pakistan, Pollution, Trade effluents, Water|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/14777830510601217 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
Purpose – Pakistan is an agricultural country having the world's largest canal irrigation system. Indus basin that covers 70 percent of irrigated area for crop production is the major source of water in the country. Owing to rapid increase in population and uncertain environmental conditions, this water is not adequate to cope with the crop water requirement and needs additional means to provide extra water for agricultural purposes. The main source of irrigation is canal and ground water but the quality of ground water is so poor for the sustainability of agriculture system. To cope with the present demand, use of municipal sewage water that consists of domestic liquid waste, as well as industrial effluents, is becoming a common practice. The present study aims to reflect the hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment, with the main focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables.
Design/methodology/approach – Industrial effluent was collected from one ghee mill, one flour mill, three textile industries and three hosieries located in Faisalabad, an industrial city of Pakistan highly affected with water pollution. All water samples were analyzed for pH, EC, SAR and RSC. Water analysis was also carried out for various nutrients and heavy metals (K+1, P2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+). Soil samples from various depths (0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120?cm) were taken to analyze for EC, pH, SAR, Na+1, SO
Findings – Although the sewage water is a source of many nutrients, it also includes a significant amount of heavy metals like Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and pathogens. Extensive use of this effluent for irrigation purpose has resulted in an upsurge of such metals in soils and various crops, which ultimately resulted in clinical problems in human beings.
Originality/value – The present study reflects the composition of sewage water and heavy metal accumulation in soil, as well as crops. It further highlights the different potential hazards to humans due to these contaminants.
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