Previously published as: Police Studies: Intnl Review of Police Development
Incorporates: American Journal of Police
Online from: 1997
Subject Area: Industry and Public Sector Management
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|Title:||Assessing the performance of pepper spray in use-of-force encounters: the Dutch experience|
|Author(s):||Otto M.J. Adang, (Dutch Police Academy, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands), Robert J. Kaminski, (Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA), Megan Q. Howell, (Center for the Prevention of School Violence, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, and), Jos Mensink, (IVA-Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands)|
|Citation:||Otto M.J. Adang, Robert J. Kaminski, Megan Q. Howell, Jos Mensink, (2006) "Assessing the performance of pepper spray in use-of-force encounters: the Dutch experience", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 29 Iss: 2, pp.282 - 305|
|Keywords:||Multiple regression analysis, Police, The Netherlands|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/13639510610667673 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
Purpose – This paper examines potential correlates of the effectiveness of oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray and police officer satisfaction with its performance during use-of-force encounters.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on surveys completed by police officers, superior officers, and substitute prosecutors, data on nearly 800 uses of OC by Dutch police forces occurring between June 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were obtained. Ordered and generalized ordered logistic regressions are used for the analysis.
Findings – The paper shows that although OC was generally effective, it was less effective on suspects under the influence of drugs, violent suspects, minority suspects, and suspects who were warned before being exposed to OC. Officers with more job experience reported OC as being more effective than officers with less experience. OC reduced aggressiveness among suspects already aggressive, but it induced aggression among initially non-aggressive subjects. The vast majority of officers were satisfied with OC's performance during the study period, although ratings were affected by its ability to ease arrests, incapacitate suspects, and reduce suspect aggressiveness.
Research limitations/implications – The OC incidents on which the analysis is based are a subset of all actual uses, and thus may not be representative. Several of the regressors are based on officer perception, and may be subject to measurement error.
Practical implications – The findings in this paper have implications for police policy, practice, and training, and officer and suspect safety.
Originality/value – This is one of very few studies to use multiple-regression to examine correlates of OC effectiveness and officer satisfaction, and it expands upon the prior literature by including additional measures of OC performance. The results should be of value to law enforcement agencies and officers using OC, and those considering its adoption.
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