Previously published as: Environmental Management and Health
Online from: 2003
Subject Area: Environmental Management/Environment
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|Title:||A comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation in North American, European and Indian cities|
|Author(s):||Richard C. Smardon, (Department of Environmental Studies, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York, USA)|
|Citation:||Richard C. Smardon, (2008) "A comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation in North American, European and Indian cities", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 19 Iss: 1, pp.118 - 137|
|Keywords:||Europe, India, North America, Sustainable development, Urban communities|
|Article type:||General review|
|DOI:||10.1108/14777830810840408 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is the comparison of Local Agenda 21 – sustainability plan implementation and research activity between Europe, North America and India.
Design/methodology/approach – Intensive literature and web search for European, North American and Indian Local Agenda 21 sustainability planning and implementation status.
Findings – Close to 6,000 sustainability plans have been prepared for European communities versus about 100 for North American communities. A total of 20 Indian cities have started sustainability planning efforts. There is an extensive support network for European communities and much less so or North American and Indian communities. Most sustainability/biodiversity/urban ecosystems research is ongoing in Europe and North America and there is a beginning surge of activity in India.
Practical implications – Knowledge of Local Agenda 21 implementation status between these three regions can hopefully spur more activity in North America and India. Comparisons of applicable planning innovations and approaches could be useful.
Originality/value – There has not been a comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation that compares Europe, North America and India. There have been some reviews respective to each region.
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