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Journal cover: Nutrition & Food Science

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Online from: 1971

Subject Area: Health Care Management/Healthcare

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Chemical composition and digestibility (in vitro) of green gram as affected by processing and cooking methods

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Title:Chemical composition and digestibility (in vitro) of green gram as affected by processing and cooking methods
Author(s):Antu Grewal, (Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India), Sudesh Jood, (Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India)
Citation:Antu Grewal, Sudesh Jood, (2009) "Chemical composition and digestibility (in vitro) of green gram as affected by processing and cooking methods", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 39 Iss: 4, pp.342 - 349
Keywords:Chemical analysis and testing, Food products, Nutrition
Article type:Research paper
DOI:10.1108/00346650910976220 (Permanent URL)
Publisher:Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Purpose – Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important food legumes grown and consumed in India. It is a good source of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Digestibility and availability of nutrients are, however, limited due to presence of toxic compounds including proteolytic enzyme inhibitors. This paper aims to assess the various processing treatments that are known to destroy heat labile toxic compounds and other enzyme inhibitors and that improve their texture, palatability and nutritive value.

Design/methodology/approach – Green gram seeds were soaked in plain water (1:4 w/v) for 12?h at 37°C. One portion of the soaked seeds was dried at 55°C and left-over soaked seeds were divided into three portions. One portion of the soaked seeds was dehulled manually. The second portion of the soaked seeds was ordinarily and pressure-cooked (water two times the weight of soaked seeds) for 35?min at 95-100°C and at 1.05?kg/cm2 pressure for 15?min, respectively. The third portion of the soaked seeds was sprouted for 24?h at 37°C. All the processed seeds were dried at 55°C in a hot air oven and then ground in a cyclone sample mill using a 0.5°mm sieve and stored for proximate composition, carbohydrate profile and in vitro starch digestibility using standard methods.

Findings – Soaking reduced the level of total, reducing and non-reducing sugars and starch, and improved in vitro starch digestibility significantly. Dehulling of soaked seeds further improved starch digestibility. Dehulling of soaked seeds also caused significant changes in protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and sugar contents. Cooking (both ordinary cooking and pressure cooking) increased the concentration of the sugars and the digestibility of starch. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Pressure cooking increased starch digestibility by about 44 per cent and 49 per cent, respectively, in both cultivars. Germination decreased starch, thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably. Cooking may gelatinize starch and germination may mobilize starch, resulting in improved digestibility of starch by a-amylase.

Practical implications – The development of high-yield crop varieties is one of the most important strategies to fill the gap between demand and supply of food legumes and also to improve the nutritional status of the population consuming such foods. Hence, it is imperative to judge their chemical composition and improve if through inexpensive processing techniques.

Originality/value – New varieties may not always be different in their nutritive value from the traditional varieties. Hence, it is imperative to constantly monitor the nutritive value of new varieties and those found inferior may be discarded from general cultivation. The efforts put in by plant breeders in developing a high-yield variety may be of little significance if it does not fit in with consumer preferences.

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