Online from: 1986
Subject Area: Human Resource Management
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|Title:||Now you see them, now you don't: gender differences in entrepreneurship|
|Author(s):||Ayala Malach-Pines, (Department of Business Administration, School of Management, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel), Dafna Schwartz, (Department of Business Administration, School of Management, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel)|
|Citation:||Ayala Malach-Pines, Dafna Schwartz, (2008) "Now you see them, now you don't: gender differences in entrepreneurship", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 23 Iss: 7, pp.811 - 832|
|Keywords:||Entrepreneurialism, Gender differences, Perception, Women|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/02683940810896358 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
|Acknowledgements:||In this paper, the term “sexes” denotes the grouping of people into male and female categories whereas the term gender refers to the meanings that societies and individuals ascribe to these categories.|
Purpose – While the numbers of, and research on, women entrepreneurs have accelerated radically in recent years, the rates of women entrepreneurs remain significantly lower than men's. Research has shown that subjective perceptual variables have a crucial influence on the entrepreneurial propensity of women and account for much of the gender differences in entrepreneurial activity. The paper aims to describe three studies that addressed gender differences in entrepreneurial perceptions, testing predictions derived from Schneider's Attraction Selection Attrition (ASA) model.
Design/methodology/approach – Each study focused on a different subject population with different entrepreneurial activity. The first was a national telephone survey that involved 514 Israeli adults. The second involved 313 Israeli management students who responded to a self-report questionnaire. The third involved interviews with 101 Israeli small business owners.
Findings – The results of the first study showed few gender differences in entrepreneurial traits and values. The results of the second study showed large gender differences in the willingness to start a business among management students and smaller differences among students who intend to start a business. Gender differences were far smaller among actual business owners. Alone and together the three studies support Schneider's ASA model.
Practical implications – The practical implications of these findings are addressed.
Originality/value – The paper provides valuable information on gender differences in entrepreneurship.
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