Online from: 1989
Subject Area: Electrical & Electronic Engineering
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|Title:||Board level reliability of lead-free designs of BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs|
|Author(s):||Meng-Kuang Huang, (Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan), Chiapyng Lee, (Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan)|
|Citation:||Meng-Kuang Huang, Chiapyng Lee, (2008) "Board level reliability of lead-free designs of BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 20 Iss: 3, pp.18 - 25|
|Keywords:||Failure modes and effects analysis, Lead, Solders|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/09540910810885688 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
|Acknowledgements:||The authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr Yee-Wen Yen, Dr Pei-Lin Wu and Dr Shyh-Rong Tzan, who contributed their precious time to conduct some of the experiment works.|
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the board level reliability test results of four IC packages with lead-free balls/platings, soldered with lead-free solder paste, during thermal cycling. The board level reliability test results of tin-lead balled/plated packages soldered with lead-free solder paste have also been included for comparison.
Design/methodology/approach – Four different packages, i.e. ball grid array (BGA), chip scale package (CSP), quad flat package (QFP) and thin small outline package (TSOP), were assembled on a test printed circuit board (PCB) as the test vehicle. Lead-free and tin-lead BGA/CSP packages were equipped with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-37Pb solder balls, respectively. The lead-frames of lead-free QFP/TSOP leaded-packages were plated with Sn-58Bi and those of tin-lead QFP/TSOP leaded-packages, Sn-37Pb. The lead-free solder paste used in this study was Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. Two kinds of surface finishes, immersion gold over electroless nickel (Au/Ni) and organic solderability preservative, were used on the PCBs. The test PCBs were thermal cycled 5,000 times within the temperature range of -40 to 125°C and electrically monitored during the thermal cycling.
Findings – It was found that the tin-lead balled/plated BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs soldered with lead-free solder paste showed serious board level reliability risks as their abilities to withstand thermal cycling stresses are much weaker than those of entirely lead-free assemblies. Neither package nor surface finish was found to have any effects on the board level reliability of test vehicles with lead-free balled/plated BGAs, CSPs, QFPs and TSOPs. Metallographic examinations were conducted to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the failure modes of solder joints.
Originality/value – The paper is of value by contributing to research in the use of lead-free solder paste with lead-containing packages in the industry. Currently, there is a deficiency of knowledge in this area.
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