Online from: 2009
Subject Area: Enterprise and Innovation
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|Title:||Gender similarities in work and well-being outcomes among managers and professionals in Egypt|
|Author(s):||Ronald J. Burke, (York University, Toronto, Canada), Ghada El-Kot, (Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt Plymouth Business School, Plymouth, UK)|
|Citation:||Ronald J. Burke, Ghada El-Kot, (2011) "Gender similarities in work and well-being outcomes among managers and professionals in Egypt", International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 Iss: 1, pp.56 - 74|
|Keywords:||Career development, Egypt, Gender, Glass ceilings, Managers, Women|
|Article type:||Research paper|
|DOI:||10.1108/17566261111114980 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate gender similarities and differences among managers and professionals working in a variety of organizations and industries in Egypt. It seeks to replicate and extend previous work by employing a different sample working in a large Muslim country.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 242 respondents, 146 males and 96 females, using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 48 percent response rate. Measures included personal demographic and work situation characteristics, stable individual difference personality factors, job behaviors, work outcomes, after-work recovery experiences, indicators of quality of life (e.g. work-family conflict and life satisfaction) and psychological well being.
Findings – There were considerable differences in personal demographic and work situation characteristics, consistent with previous findings. Females were younger, less likely to be married, worked at lower organizational levels, were less likely to supervise others, worked in smaller organizations, and earned less income. Males and females were generally similar on stable individual difference personality factors and job behaviors. Females, however, were less satisfied with their careers, less work engaged, and reported higher levels of both exhaustion and psychosomatic symptoms; findings different from those observed in other countries female managers did make greater use of the four recovery experiences examined.
Research limitations/implications – Consistent with previous research, considerable demographic and work situation differences were observed. But different from previous research, female and male managers in Egypt reported some similar and some different work and well-being outcomes. The observed differences indicated that women managers are somewhat disadvantaged on both work and well being.
Practical implications – These results suggest that Egyptian organizations need to devote more resources to supporting the career development of managerial and professional women. In addition, Egyptian society needs to challenge the existing stereotypes of women's roles. Entrepreneurship appears to be a realistic prospect for some women managers and professionals dissatisfied with their current careers.
Originality/value – This study provides insights on similarities and differences on personal demographic characteristics and outcome measures among female and male managers in Egypt.
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