Online from: 1993
Subject Area: Organization Studies
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|Title:||What constitutes a level of analysis?: Reflections on Yammarino's, “Levels of analysis and the US Constitution”|
|Author(s):||John L. Michela, (Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada)|
|Citation:||John L. Michela, (2008) "What constitutes a level of analysis?: Reflections on Yammarino's, “Levels of analysis and the US Constitution”", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 16 Iss: 3, pp.198 - 202|
|Keywords:||Collectivism, Data analysis, Individual development, Networking, Organizational analysis, United States of America|
|DOI:||10.1108/19348830810937989 (Permanent URL)|
|Publisher:||Emerald Group Publishing Limited|
Purpose – This paper aims to respond to Yammarino's article in this issue on level of analysis and the US Constitution.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper expands on two concepts central to levels of analysis: entity and causal process. Then additional alternative ways of conceptualizing, analyzing, and representing multi-level organizations – beyond the organization chart – are described. A rationale for America's use of the Electoral College is sought.
Findings – The paper reveals connections among traditional notions of hierarchy (including the traditional organization chart) and contemporary social network concepts.
Practical implications – Leaders and other members of social and organizational systems should be mindful of their mental representations of hierarchy, of organizational or social groupings (e.g., US States), and of social distance. These representations can influence behaviors and perceptions, including perceived fairness of procedures.
Originality/value – The paper presents interesting information on connections among traditional notions of hierarchy and contemporary social network concepts.
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