Emerald | Journal of Documentation | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0022-0418.htm Table of contents from the most recently published issue of Journal of Documentation Journal en-gb Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Journal of Documentation | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_journal/jdcover.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0022-0418.htm 120 157 An Information Meta-State Approach to Documentation http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103129&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to bring both Simondonian and Deleuzian insights to bear upon the nature of documents and documentation by viewing them as non-representationalist, and as products of transduction and reticulation that render documents assemblages that are in constant negotiation with an environment as instances of a perpetually renewing problematic.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Simondon’s work on metastability and transduction can offer particular insights into how we view documents in terms of their materiality, signification, and possibly to move beyond the phenomenological bias in the treatment of documents. <B>Findings</B> - In understanding or describing the process of documentation as a reticulation or unfolding, we also come to view the document as an assemblage in perpetual negotiation. This paper adapts Deleuze and Guattari’s articulation framework of expression-signification and provides a bit of groundwork toward two registers of information (first and second order) according to the preindividual process of that allows for the individuation of documents.<B>Originality/value</B> - This paper makes an original contribution to understanding the process of documentation and the product of documents in a more fluid, interdynamic context by shifting or displacing the traditional view of information. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Kane X. Faucher) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Clownpants in the Classroom? Hypnotizing Chickens? Measurement of Structural Distraction in Visual Presentation Documents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103088&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper considers the structure of entertainment media as a possible foundation for measuring aspects of visual presentations that could enhance or interfere with audience engagement.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Factors that might account for the large number of negative comments about visual presentations are identified and a method of calculating entropy measurements for form attributes of presentations is introduced.<B>Findings</B> - Entropy calculations provide a numerical measure of structural elements that account for engagement or distraction. A set of peer evaluations of educational presentations is used to calibrate a distraction factor algorithm.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - Distraction as a consequence of document structure might enable engineering of a balance between document structure and content in document formats not yet explored by mechanical entropy calculations.<B>Practical implications</B> - Mathematical calculations of structural elements (form attributes) support what multimedia presentation viewers have been observing for years (documented in numerous journals and newspapers from education to business to military fields): engineering PowerPoint presentations necessarily involves attention to engagement versus distraction in the audience.<B>Originality/value</B> - Exploring aspects of document structures has been demonstrated to calibrate viewer perceptions to calculated measurements in moving image documents, and now in images and multimedia presentation documents extending Claude Shannon’s early work communication channels and James Watt & Robert Krull’s work on television programming. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Jodi Kearns, Brian C. O'Connor) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Experiencing Documents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103123&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper was written to invite further consideration of how people experience documents. By offering a model from Reader Response theory—Louise Rosenblatt’s Transactional Theory of Reading—as well as examples from research on numinous experiences with museum objects, the author hopes to open further avenues of information behavior studies about people and documents. The goal is to incorporate more aspects of lived experience and the aesthetic into practice with and research of documents. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Theoretical scope includes Louise Rosenblatt’s Transactional Theory of Reading, John Dewey’s concepts of transaction and experience and lived experience concepts/methods derived from phenomenology. <B>Findings</B> - Rosenblatt’s Transactional Theory explicates the continuum of reader response, from the efferent to the aesthetic, stating that the act of "reading" (experience) involves a transaction between the reader (person) and the text (document). Each transaction is a unique experience in which the reader and text continuously act and are acted upon by each other. This theory of reading translates well into the realm of investigating the lived experience of documents and in that context, a concrete example and suggested strategies for future study are provided. <B>Originality/value</B> - This paper provides a holistic approach to understanding lived experience with documents and introduces the concept of person-document transaction. It inserts the wider notion of document into a more specific theory of reading, expanding its use beyond the borders of text, print and literature. By providing an example of real document experiences and applying Rosenblatt’s continuum, the value of this paper is in opening new avenues for information behavior inquiries. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Kiersten F. Latham) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Characteristics of Human Perception and their Relevance When Studying Information Behavior http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103125&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this article is to highlight findings regarding human perception in allied disciplines and to argue that information behaviour research needs to find ways to address human characteristics that imply that a) subjects are likely to fail to recognize information that is present in an environment and potentially relevant to a task at hand and b) subjects would not be able to report on the fact that they failed to recognize the information. We also discuss as to how information behaviour research can address the aforementioned challenges resulting from human movement and perception.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The author draws on the literature primarily in cognitive science and psychology to highlight the findings that are most relevant to the scientific study of information behaviour, to develop a model of the information environment in which information behaviour is situated, and to critically examine how data is collected in information behaviour research. Ways to provide more comprehensive information about information behaviour are also discussed.<B>Findings</B> - The literature in cognitive science and psychology suggests that failing to notice information relevant to a task at hand may not be the exception but to be expected, and needs to be taken into account by information behaviour researchers. Popular data collection methods including questionnaires and interviews do not pick that up because subjects would not be aware of the fact which means in turn that they cannot articulate the fact either. This suggest that a) current models of information behaviour focus too much on one side of the coin and b) information behaviour researchers may need to complement their data collection methods with data collection methods such as gaze tracking.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - This is a conceptual paper based on the careful analysis of relevant research primarily in cognitive science and psychology. Relating theory to practice provides a strong indication of the general validity of the findings but there may be other aspects that have not been covered as yet. <B>Originality/value</B> - The article is unique in that it critically reviews information behaviour research from a human perception and movement point of view. There have been papers criticising information behaviour research from a methodological point of view. This article adds to that body of work and proposes a way forward. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Christopher Peter Lueg) Wed, 15 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A model of uncertainty and its relation to information seeking and retrieval (IS&R) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103086&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This study was undertaken to show that uncertainty may be caused not only by a knowledge gap in the mind of a user with respect to a given subject or topic, but also by the various complexities associated with the information seeking and retrieval (IS&R) process in a digital environment.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Both quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted to collect data from users in the higher education sector regarding whether or not they experienced uncertainty in relation to the IS&R process. Analysis. A correlation analysis was undertaken to establish whether there were any relationships between information seeking activities and information seeking problems.<B>Findings</B> - The findings of this research show that uncertainty existed at different stages of the IS&R process amongst users. It was established that uncertainty was caused by a number of information seeking activities and information seeking problems, and that such uncertainty could continue over the course of successive search sessions, leading to the proposal of a new model of uncertainty.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The proposed model of uncertainty should contribute to a better understanding of the issues related to IS&R in a digital environment. <B>Practical implications</B> - A number of benefits could be realised in systems design from the application of this model in terms of reducing the negative impact of uncertainty, while at the same time helping users to gain from the positive aspects of uncertainty in IS&R.<B>Originality/value</B> - The general consensus is that uncertainty is a mental state of users reflecting a gap in knowledge which triggers an IS&R process, and that the gap is reduced as relevant information is found, and thus that the uncertainty disappears as the search process concludes. However, in the present study it is argued that some form of uncertainty is always associated with some part of the IS&R process and that it also fluctuates throughout the IS&R process. Users may therefore feel uncertain at any stage of the information seeking and retrieval process and this may be related to: the initial information need and expression of that need, the search process itself, including identification of relevant systems, services and resources; and the assessment of, and reaction to, the results produced by the search process. Uncertainty may be unresolved, or even increase, as the user progresses, often iteratively, through the IS&R process and may remain even after its completion, resulting in what may be called a persistent uncertainty. In other words, this research hypothesises that, in addition to the uncertainty that triggers the information search process (Wilson et al, 2000), users suffer from varying degrees of uncertainty at every stage of the information search and retrieval process, and that in turn, triggers different information-seeking behaviours. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Sudatta Chowdhury, Forbes Gibb, Monica Landoni) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 A Tale of Two Images: The Quest to Create a Story-based Image Indexing System http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103106&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This conceptual paper considers the possibility of designing a story-based image indexing system based on users’ descriptions of images. It reports a pilot study which uses users’ descriptions of two images. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Eight interviews were undertaken to investigate storytelling in user interpretations of the images. Following this, storytelling was explored as an indexing input method. Twenty-six research subjects were asked to create stories about the images, which were then considered in relation to conventional story elements and in relation to Rafferty and Hidderley’s 2005 image modality model<B>Findings</B> - The results of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the majority of interpretations incorporated story elements related to setting, character, plot, literary devices, and themes. The fifty-two image stories included story elements identified in the first part of the project, and suggested that the image modality model is robust enough to deal with the ‘writerly’ images used in this study. In addition, using storytelling as an input method encourages the use of verbs and connotative level responses<B>Originality/value</B> - User indexing is generally based on paradigmatic approaches to concept analysis and interpretation in the form of tagging; the novelty of the current study is its exploration of syntagmatic approaches to user indexing in the form of story-telling. It is a pilot, proof of concept study, but it is hoped that it might stimulate further interest in syntagmatic approaches to user indexing. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Pauline Rafferty, Fawaz Falah) Fri, 28 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of mobile tablet devices on human information behaviour http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103096&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - Mobile computing devices are a significant access point for information activities. Theories and models of human information behaviour have developed over several decades but have not considered the role of the user’s computing device in digital information interactions. This study explores the information behaviours of young adults when they are given unlimited access to mobile tablet devices. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - As information tasks, behaviours and communities shift into digital environments, a researcher of these phenomena is required to mirror that movement with techniques that allow a full exploration of human behaviour and interaction in the online world. Following Kozinet (2010), "netnography" (ethnography in online communities) is applied in this study and all data is collected online from within a community of iPad users, established for the research purpose. <B>Findings</B> - This study reveals that access to mobile tablet devices creates significant shifts in the behaviours of young adults whose lives are immersed in digital information. Mobile tablet devices establish the potential for constant access to digital information and that opportunity is grasped by the participants in this research. Extensive use of mobile device applications or ‘apps’ establishes a more selected and restricted view of information than that encountered in the open and expansive world wide web.<B>Originality/value</B> - This paper invites extension to human information behavior theories and models to include a consideration of computing access device and of new mobility and constancy of access - all of which changes the circumstances and behaviour of the information actor. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Sally Burford, Sora Park) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Models explaining the perceived outcomes of public libraries http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103118&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The benefits of public libraries as perceived by adults in everyday activities, in cultural activities and in career are modeled by multivariate techniques.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The survey data is based on a representative sample of 1000 Finnish adults ranging from 15 to 79 years. The perceived benefits were modeled by linear regression analysis and by path analysis.<B>Findings</B> - The models explain 27 % - 32 % of the variation in the three benefit types observed. The role and the explanatory power of the factors included in the models vary to a certain extent between the benefit types. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The results are generalizable at least to small, wealthy welfare states with a well-developed public library system.<B>Practical implications</B> - It seems that the public library functions relatively more as a source of information for everyday activities in older age groups, whereas more as a source of information for career in younger age groups. The public library should profile its services accordingly.<B>Originality/value</B> - This is first study to model the factors associated with the benefits adults derive by using the public library in the major areas of life. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Pertti Vakkari) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 The National Library of Singapore: creating a sense of community http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103115&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of the National Library of Singapore in the life of Singaporeans.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The paper uses historical research. McMillan and Chavis’ theory of sense of community is adopted as the analytical framework to delineate the role of the National Library of Singapore. <B>Findings</B> - The paper finds that the National Library of Singapore plays an important role in fostering a sense of community among Singaporeans. The transformation of the library to a truly public institution in 1950s effectively enlarged its boundaries. Upon joining the community of the library, local Singaporeans underwent a bidirectional process of influencing and being influenced. The library made strenuous efforts to meet the needs of Singaporeans in myriad ways, resulting in reinforcement of the sense of community among Singaporeans. A shared emotional connection in the community was engendered as a result of the frequent contact and high-quality interaction.<B>Originality/value</B> - While being influenced by various social and cultural frameworks under which it operates, the library actively takes part in and influences the society. The study of the library in the life of the users via the lens of sense of community provides a perspective to further understand the potential and power of libraries and how libraries can positively contribute to the society at large. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Hui Lin, Brendan Luyt) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Interpreting the world across a boundary: The evolution of information from life’s first decisions to the information society http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103126&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper examines the association between information and boundaries. Life depends on boundaries; but in order to survive an organism needs to make decisions based on an interpretation of the environment beyond its boundaries: it therefore needs information. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The paper explores the evolution of physical, social and cultural boundaries and considers how they have shaped ways in which information is gathered and used.<B>Findings</B> - Several evolutionary developments are reviewed. The paper argues that each one has generated an additional boundary and that each new boundary has affected the information needs within it. The paper argues that all living things use information to help address three fundamental concerns: "Where can the energy needed to stay alive be found?", "How can it be stored?", and "How can use of energy be reduced?" Because these questions are fundamental at a biological level they are also fundamental at a societal level. One way to increase energy efficiency was for organisms to grow larger. This brought risks which were alleviated by the evolution of better information gathering and processing tools. Amongst these tools were the means to communicate, which afforded the evolution of social boundaries. <B>Originality/value</B> - This is a new perspective on a topic of growing interest in information science and demonstrates further the significance of information as a factor in the shaping of life. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Andrew David Madden) Mon, 06 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Informational balance: Slow principles in the theory and practice of information behaviour http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0022-0418&volume=70&issue=4&articleid=17103105&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The study investigates whether the principles of the Slow Movement may be applied to information behaviour.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The study uses three methods: a literature analysis and synthesis; a Delphi study; and a focus group. All are conducted according to Slow principles, allowing time for critical reflection.<B>Findings</B> - Slow principles are applicable to both the theory and practice of information behaviour. They allow theory to be more realistic by encompassing a broader range of behaviours. The use of Slow principles in information practice may help to overcome problems relating to personal information management. The notion of ‘informational balance’ stems from Slow ideas and is a useful concept for theory and practice.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The empirical parts of the study use small groups of participants, and the emphasis of the focus group in particular was on everyday information, rather than on professional or academic information. The results of the study show that research and theory in information behaviour would benefit form more explicit attention to time factors.<B>Practical implications</B> - The findings may be used in the design of information literacy instruction, and in encouraging a more reflective approach to personal information management.<B>Originality/value</B> - This is the first study to examine the applicability of Slow principles in an information context. It is also original in explicitly applying Slow principles to the research design. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Liz Poirier, Lyn Robinson) Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0100