Emerald | Pigment & Resin Technology | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0369-9420.htm Table of contents from the most recently published issue of Pigment & Resin Technology Journal en-gb Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Pigment & Resin Technology | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_journal/prtcover.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0369-9420.htm 120 157 Physicochemical colorants effects on polymeric composites printing toner http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117117&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - Colour digital electrophotographic printing is currently in high demand. The provision of a large colour gamut depends on appropriate selection of precise colorants to produce toner capable of producing a thin layer on paper. This study reports on production of the colour digital printing toners cyan, magenta and yellow. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Printing toner were synthesized by the emulsion aggregation method, and then evaluated for chemical constitution and effects of the colorant substituents. <B>Findings</B> - Results demonstrated that increasing the polarity of a pigment produced better dispersion and lower particle size with narrower distribution and even better colour reproduction. While changing a pigment’s characteristics did not affect the toner shape or its thermal properties.<B>Practical implications</B> - The developed method provides a simple way to synthesise colour printing toner. <B>Originality/value</B> - Evaluations of the influence of solid-state parameters and physicochemical properties of the pigments on printing toner characteristics were done for the first time. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Maryam Ataeefard, Farahnaz Nourmohammadian, Zahra Bazrafshan) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Synthesis and application of cationic fluorinated acrylic resin for use in cathodic electrodeposition coatings http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117121&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - Fluorinated polymers are expected to be adopted in speci?c coatings to afford outstanding advantages, such as high chemical and photochemical resistance, low surface tension, and low refractive index. At present, ?uorinated CED coatings are attracting the attention that it deserves and seldom reported. The purpose of this research was to prepare a ?uorinated acrylate resin, which would be synthesised via solution polymerisation of ?uorinated monomer, acrylate monomers and other functional monomers. Relevant characterisation and application studies were also carried out.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The cationic fluorinated acrylic resin was successfully prepared by solution polymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA), butyl acrylate (BA),methyl methacrylate (MMA), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) initiated by 2,2,-Azo-bis-iso-butyronitrile (AIBN) in the solvent of butylcellosolve (BCS). The resultant resin was neutralized with the acetic acid. The CED coatings are prepared when the moderate amount of the blocked isocyanate and distilled water were added into the resultant resin. <B>Findings</B> - The hydrophobicity of the film is improved when the ?uorinated monomer is introduced to copolymerize with other monomers. The optimum conditions of preparing the resin are as follows: (1) the amount of azodiisobutyronitrile is controlled with the range of 3.0% and 4.0%; (2) the amine value of the resin is 70 mgKOH/g; (3) the hydroxyl vale of resin and mole ratio hydroxyl to isocyanate is 60mgKOH/g and 1.0/1.0, respectively; (4) the degree of neutralization of the resin is within the range of 35% and 40%. <B>Practical implications</B> - The cationic fluorinated acrylic resin can be used to be the binder of CED coatings, which can be applied to electrodeposition finishing for high demand of exterior decorative and weather resistance, such as hardware, accessories, office furniture and so on.<B>Originality/value</B> - The cationic fluorinated acrylic resin was successfully prepared by solution polymerization. The hydrophobicity of the film is improved. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Lijun Chen, Wen Li, Wei Jiang) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Dyeing properties of PSA/MPIA blended yarn http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117116&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - To study the dyeing properties of polysulphonamide (PSA)/aramid 1313 (MPIA) blended yarn by selecting suitable dyes and carriers required in the dyeing process.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Dyeing the blended yarn with cationic dyes, acid dyes, disperse dyes, reactive dyes and pigment, and comparing the shades, K/S values and fastness of the blended yarns.<B>Findings</B> - The PSA/MPIA blended fibre is suitable for dyeing with the cationic dye at high temperature and pressure in the presence of carrier acetophenone, and good homochromatism are showed on the two fibres when using same type of dye.<B>Originality/value</B> - Polysulphonamide fibre is a thermo-resistant and flame-retardant product made in China in recent years. Blended with aramid 1313 fibre, it may acquire good spinnability. But there is little technical report about properties of the blended yarn in the literature at present. This paper reports the dyeing property of such fibres for the first time. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Shuling Cui, Chunxiao Dou) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 BisGMA/jute fiber/fly ash hybrid composites http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117113&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper seeks to prepare BisGMA/Jute fiber/Fly Ash hybrid composites with improved mechanical and corrosive properties.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - BisGMA (bisphenol-A glycidyldimethacrylate) prepolymer was first synthesised using diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and methacrylic acid. Then 2-hydroxy ethylacrylate (HEA) treated jute fiber and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated fly ash were incorporated in the fabrication of composites using Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP), Cobalt naphthenate and N, N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) as catalyst, accelerator and promoter respectively. The composition of BisGMA, jute fiber and fly ash were kept constant whereas treated and untreated jute fiber and fly ash were used alternatively.<B>Findings</B> - Treatment of both jute and fly ash leads to improved mechanical properties of composites. However, treated fabric plays a dominant role compared to treated fly ash as filler. Amongst all the composites, the one having both treated jute fiber and treated fly ash is the most suitable composite for structural applications.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The present investigation has come up with a hybrid composite that can be used for a wide range of applications like low cost housing and structural projects, structural laminates etc since it is both corrosion and moisture resistant. It is also the most durable from the mechanical point of view. There is also a scope of using other fillers instead of fly ash in order to study the changes brought about in the mechanical properties.<B>Originality/value</B> - The above composites have never been fabricated before. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Ankita Pritam Praharaj, Dibakar Behera, Tapan Kumar Bastia, Prasanta Rath, Priyabrata Mohanty) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Pendulum hardness of polyurethane coatings during curing http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117105&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper aims to disclose the evolution of pendulum hardness of two-component acrylic polyurethane coatings during the cure process and attempts to describe the quantitative relationship between pendulum hardness and curing time. These findings are helpful for the study of fast curing acrylic polyurethane coatings. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The pendulum hardness method was used to monitor the hardness of two-component acrylic polyurethane coatings during curing. The quantitative relationship between pendulum hardness and curing time can be obtained with Avrami equation.<B>Findings</B> - The evolution of coating pendulum hardness can be divided into three stages. By using the Avrami equation that explained the influence of both the acid value and the curing temperature on the drying speed of hydroxyl acrylic resin, the evolution of coating pendulum hardness during curing can also be accurately described.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - It should be noted that the physical meaning of the Avrami exponent, n, is not yet clear.<B>Practical implications</B> - The results are of great significance for the development of fast curing hydroxyl-functional acrylic resins, with the potential to improve the drying speed of the coatings used in automotive refinish.<B>Originality/value</B> - It is novel to divide the pendulum hardness into three stages and for the first time the Avrami equation is utilized to describe the evolution of coating pendulum hardness during curing. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Zhifeng Huang, Xiaoyang Ma, Zemin Qiao, Shujuan Wang, Xinli Jing) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Novel comonomer synthesis from thiophene-2-carbonyl chloride and polydimethyl siloxane modified cyclohexanone formaldehyde resin http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117109&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to produce an electro active monomer containing ketonic resins and then to investigated redox reaction between Fe+3 and bounded thiophene in comonomer. Firstly, thiophene functionalised ketonic resins (Th–CFPDMSR) were synthesised by esterification reaction of thiophene-2-carbonyl chloride (ThCCl) and hydroxyl groups of CFR. Th –CFPDMSR was then polymerised by ferric salt. This , thiophene modified ketonic resins (Th-CF-PDMSR) as comonomers were characterised by common techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC),1H-NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Th-CFPDMSR comonomers were synthesised by esterification reaction of thiophene-2-carbonyl chloride (TCCl) and hydroxyl groups of ketonic resins. Then, the in situ chemical oxidation (ICO) of ThC-CFR in the presence of iron (III) chloride salt (FeCl3) was accomplished in chloroform (CHCl3) / acetonitrile mixture (ACN) solutions at room temperature<B>Findings</B> - Important structural factors determined quantitatively for Th–CFPDMSR is the CFPDMS / TCCl ratio after reaction. The mole ratio effect of TCCl and ketonic resin, on the solubility, molecular weight, Tm and Tg values of the comonomers (TCCl-CFPDMSRs) were investigated. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The ferric ion (Fe+3) has a standard oxidation potential. Furthermore, FeCl3 can react with thiophene to produce a cation radical. FeCl3 can not react with hydroxyl groups of ketonic resins. When ferric is used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) application at relatively low temperatures (e.g., <20 °C), the oxidation reactions are usually less aggressive. <B>Practical implications</B> - This work provides technical information for the synthesis of conducting block copolymer and for the synthesis of chain extended resins. The modified resins contain thiophene. The chemical oxidation system has been used to polymerise these thiophene groups and resins with much higher molecular weight might be produced. The resins may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating and corrosion inhibition to metal surfaces of a coating. <B>Originality/value</B> - Novel Th-CFPDMSR comonomers were synthesised. These comonomers have higher Tg and Tm value than CF-PDMSR alone. The chemical oxidation system has been used to polymerise these thiophene functionalized ketonic resins. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Nilgun Kizilcan, Merve Istif) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Polyesteramide resin from PET waste and fatty amide. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117118&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - Synthesis of polyesteramide resin from jatropha oil and monomer from recycling of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to get the excellent benefit of individual structure. Along with the synthesis of polyester amide resin this research work will also help in recycling of PET waste and help for the conversion of monomer obtained from recycling of PET to value added application.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Polyesteramide resin was synthesized by conventional method i.e. by converting jatropha oil to corresponding fatty amide i.e. hydroxyl ethyl jatropha oil fatty acid amide (HEJA) and treating it with dicarboxylic acid i.e. sebacic acid but Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terepthalamide (BHETA) is added i.e. monomer of PET and then resin synthesis is carried out. Synthesized resin is cured with isocyanate and used for coating application. Coating is characterized for physical, mechanical, thermal and anticorrosive properties.<B>Findings</B> - Coating shows excellent balance of flexibility and hardness due to structural difference in BHETA and HEJA. Aromatic structure of BHETA was helping for increasing hardness and helping for retardation of degradation and at the same time aliphatic structure of HEJA was helping for increasing flexibility of the coating. Amide linkage present in both help for better adhesion of coating to metal surface which also helps to improve the mechanical properties as well as anticorrosive properties.<B>Practical implications</B> - This method is the practical solution for synthesis of polyesteramide resin and then coating from PET waste and jatropha oil. Hence the method developed is simple and it helps for recycling of PET waste and conversion of recycled product to value added material.<B>Originality/value</B> - To our best of knowledge this is the first study which use jatropha oil (Fatty amide of jatropha oil) and PET waste ( Monomer of PET waste) simultaneously for the synthesis of polyesteramide resin and then coating. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Aarti P. More, Ravindra Abhimanyu Kute, Shashank T Mhaske) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Oligomer-in-water emulsion based waterborne UV-curable paints for cotton printing http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117122&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The aim of this paper is to prepare waterborne UV-curable pigment pastes for cotton fabric printing.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - O/W (oligomer in water) emulsions of polyurethane acrylate (PUA) oligomer in sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) aqueous solution were prepared by ultrasonic emulsification method.<B>Findings</B> - The present work studies various factors affecting the stability and droplet size of the oligomer-in-water emulsion stabilised by SDBS. The optimal emulsifier concentration was 2.5%, under which condition the stability of the emulsion increased as the emulsifier content increased, with a subsequent decrease in the droplet size of the emulsion, while above which emulsion agglomeration occurred. Increasing the power and duration of ultrasonic dispersion resulted in increased emulsion stability and decreased droplet size, while increases in the oligomer content reduced the emulsion stability. Darocure 1173 mixed with PUA and then emulsified in the SDBS aqueous solution guaranteed uniform dispersion of the photoinitiator resulting in faster curing speed.<B>Originality/value</B> - This paper presents a new method for making waterborne externally emulsified oligomers for UV curing, and finds that it is easy to convert the existing oligomers into waterborne equivalents by this method. Cotton fabrics printed with the oligomer emulsion based pastes were found to have good colour strength and crockfastness. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Tao Zhang, Kairui Zhang, Tao Li, Chaoxia Wang, Fan Yang) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone ? polyethylene glycol blends on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium in HCl solution http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117108&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and blended formulations on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium in HCl solutions at 30-60 oC and to study the mechanism of action.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The inhibitive effect of the homopolymers and polymer blend were assessed using weight loss and hydrogen evolution methods at 30 and 60 oC. The morphology of the corroding aluminium surface without and with the additives was visualized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The trend of inhibition efficiency with temperature was used to propose the mechanism of inhibition and type of adsorption<B>Findings</B> - Results obtained show that inhibition efficiency (? %) increases with increase in concentration of the polymers but decreases with increase in temperature. The inhibition efficiency of the homoploymers and their blends decreased with rise in temperature. Inhibition efficiency was found to be synergistically enhanced on blending the two homopolymers with highest inhibition efficiency obtained for (PEG: PVP) blending ratio of 1:3. The phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the trend of inhibition efficiency with temperature. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> - The mechanistic aspect of the corrosion inhibition can be better understood using electrochemical studies such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.<B>Originality/value</B> - Studies involving the use of polymer blends/mixtures as corrosion inhibitor for metals in corrosive environments is scarce. The results suggest that the mixture could find practical application in corrosion control in aqueous acidic environment. The data obtained would form part of database on the use of polymer-polymer mixtures to control acid-induced corrosion of metal. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Saviour Umoren, Ubong M Eduok, Moses M Solomon) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Coating properties of shellac modified with synthesised epoxidised-novolac resin http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0369-9420&volume=43&issue=5&articleid=17117115&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - To improve the properties of shellac by blending with epoxidised novolac resin for its use as coating material for metal surfaces<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin which in turn was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The epoxidised-novolac resin was blended with different weight ratios of shellac ranging 10-50 wt percent with an interval of 10 wt %. Films of the blends were studied for different coating properties using standard procedure.<B>Findings</B> - Significant improvement in coating properties of shellac such as gloss, scratch hardness and impact resistance was observed on blending with epoxidised novolac resin. Resistance towards water and alkali increased while acid resistance decreased with the increase in concentration of epoxidised novolac resin in the blends. Contact angle measurement revealed that blends showed more resistance towards polar solvent than non polar ones.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - Epoxidised-novolac resin used in the study was synthesised of epoxy equivalent of 187. Epoxidised-novolac resin of different epoxy equivalent can also be synthesised and used for blending and studying the properties.<B>Practical implications</B> - Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin improved the coating properties of shellac which was further enhanced with the treatment of BMF resin. The formulation can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.<B>Originality/value</B> - Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin was done for the first time. The formulation can be utilised for developing coating material for metal surfaces. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Mohammad Fahim Ansari, Gautam Sarkhel, Dipendra Nath Goswami, Bangali Baboo) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100