Emerald | Advances in Group Processes | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0882-6145.htm Table of contents from the most recently published volume of Advances in Group Processes Book series en-gb Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Advances in Group Processes | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_book/0882-6145.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0882-6145.htm 120 157 Thirty Years of Advances in Group Processes: A Review Essay http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097508&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030004 <p>Purpose – This chapter reviews 30 years of Advances in Group Processes. Its primary purpose is to study the part the series has played in the advances in the study of group processes that have taken place between 1984 and 2014.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – This chapter places the 30 years of Advances in Group Processes in the context of the changes that took place between small groups research in the 1950s and group processes research in the 1980s and beyond.</p><p>Findings – Analyzing the policies of Advances in Group Processes and its contents, this chapter reflects on its role in the advances in group processes that have taken place since the 1980s. Between 1950 and 1980, small group research reinvented, reconceptualized, and reinvigorated itself as group process research. Between the two periods, small group research, its applied research, and its research programs became increasingly theory-driven and its concept of the group and its levels increasingly analytic. As a consequence of these changes, the concept of the field itself became increasingly analytic. The changes between the two periods in its theory, research, application, programs, and in its concept of the group and the way the field was conceptualized led to marked advances in group process research in the 90s and beyond – to more theory, more impact of it on application, and more, and more cumulative, growth of it. Advances in Group Processes was at once a reflection of the changes that took place between the two periods and a driving force in the advances in group processes research that have taken place ever since.</p><p>Originality/value – Advances in Group Processes is a fundamental resource for the development of theory and research on small groups and group processes. This chapter provides an overview of its contributions and places them in the context of the development of the field as a whole.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Morris Zelditch) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Still Color-Blind? The Treatment of Race, Ethnicity, Intersectionality, and Sexuality in Sociological Social Psychology http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097509&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030005 <p>Purpose – The chapter revisits and updates an earlier analysis to assess the extent to which sociological social psychology’s treatment of race has changed since 2000, and evaluates the degree to which issues of intersectionality and sexuality are engaged in social psychological scholarship.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – The chapter provides a content analysis of articles published between 2000 and 2012 in Social Psychology Quarterly, a leading journal in sociological social psychology, and of chapters published in two influential handbooks in social psychology.</p><p>Findings – It documents a notable increase in the percentage of articles in Social Psychology Quarterly in which race/ethnicity is referred to, included in the analysis, or seriously engaged. Patterns vary by methodological approach used in these articles. Social psychological attention to intersectionality and sexuality, as measured by the percentage of articles that broach these topics, is minimal.</p><p>Research limitations/implications – This chapter restricts its analysis to the leading journal in sociological social psychology, but still demonstrates that there is potential for greater movement toward the incorporation of race/ethnicity, intersectionality, and sexuality in social psychological scholarship.</p><p>Originality/value – It calls attention to core topics in sociology that would benefit from greater scholarly engagement by social psychologists.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Matthew O. Hunt, Pamela Braboy Jackson, Samuel H. Kye, Brian Powell, Lala Carr Steelman) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Race and Ethnic Composition of Groups: Experimental Investigations http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097510&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030006 <p>Purpose – This chapter considers whether and how race/ethnicity can be examined using experimental methods.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – We begin by discussing the highly contextual nature of race/ethnicity and reviewing the properties of experiments. After examining existing experimental literature that focuses on race/ethnicity, we turn to our current study that uses the incompatible complexity condition to examine the multilevel interactions of diverse racial/ethnic groups composed of Mexican American and White participants in Texas and Black and White participants in Ohio.</p><p>Findings – We argue that experiments, when guided by formal theoretical approaches that allow for general inquiries of theoretical principles, are especially suitable for studying interactional characteristics such as race/ethnicity.</p><p>Originality/value – We suggest a particular approach that emphasizes interactional aspects of race/ethnicity and how these aspects can be utilized to diminish inequality in group processes.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Carla Goar, Jane Sell, Bianca Manago, Calixto Melero, Bobbi Reidinger) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 The Spread of Status Value: A Theoretical Extension http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097511&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030007 <p>Purpose – The Spread of Status Value theory describes how new diffuse status characteristics can arise out of the association of initially non-valued characteristics to existing status characteristics that are already well-established in a society. Our objective is to extend this theory so that it describes how still other status elements, which have become of interest to researchers such as “status objects” (Thye, 2000) and “valued roles” (Fisek, Berger, & Norman, 1995), can also be socially created.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – Our approach involves reviewing research that is relevant to the Spread of Status Value theory, and in introducing concepts and assumptions that are applicable to status objects and valued roles.</p><p>Findings – Our major results are an elaborated theory that describes the construction of status objects and valued roles, a graphic representation of one set of conditions in which this creation process is predicted to occur, and a design for a further empirical test of the Spread of Status Value theory. This extension has social implications. It opens up the possibility of creating social interventions that involve status objects and valued roles to ameliorate dysfunctional social situations.</p><p>Originality/value – Our elaborated theory enables us to understand for the first time how different types of status valued elements can, under appropriate conditions, be socially created or socially modified as a result of the operation of what are fundamentally similar processes.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Joseph Berger, M. Hamit Fisek) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 The Role of Uncertainty in Social Influence http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097512&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030008 <p>Purpose – This study examines how the distribution of opinions and social status combine in a collectively oriented task group to affect perceptions about the correctness of a final decision.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.</p><p>Findings – The study shows that both the distribution of opinions and status affect perceptions of correctness. It also establishes that the effects of status on uncertainty are strongest when the group is initially evenly split about the correctness of an opinion, and that like the distribution of opinions, the effects of status on uncertainty are curvilinear.</p><p>Research limitations/implications – Previous research shows that by integrating research on faction sizes with status characteristics theory (SCT), more accurate predictions of social influence are possible. Assumed therein is that people use information about the distribution of opinions and status to reduce uncertainty about correctness of a choice. The current study establishes this point empirically by examining the effects of the distribution of opinions and status in a four-person, collectively oriented task group. Future research should consider groups of different sizes and other moderating factors.</p><p>Originality/value – This study advances and elaborates upon previous research on social influence that integrates research on faction sizes with SCT.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Scott V. Savage, David Melamed, Aaron Vincent) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 The Professional Credentials of Immigrants: A Status-and-Expectations Approach http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097513&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030009 <p>Purpose – (a) To examine “native-born/immigrant” (nativity) and “national/foreign professional credentials” (country of credentials) as status factors in terms of expectation states theory, and (b) to lay out a blueprint for a theory-based, experimental research agenda in this area.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – (for (b) above). I propose a research program based on three types of expectation states experimental designs: the open group-discussion, the rejection-of-influence standardized setting, and the application-files format. All three incorporate measures of either biased evaluations or double standards for competence, or of both. I illustrate how these designs can be adapted to assess, through the presence/absence of one or the other of those practices, the separate impacts of nativity, country of professional credentials and selected additional factors on the inference of task competence. The need for and the advantages of systematic, experimental work on this topic are highlighted.</p><p>Findings – (from (a) above). I review evidence of the status value of nativity and country of credentials through data on evaluations, employment, and earnings. My evidence originates in contemporary Canadian studies that present results from surveys, interviews, census records, and – to a lesser extent – experiments, and these findings support my claim.</p><p>Practical/social implications – The proposed research will facilitate the development of interventions toward the standardized and unbiased assessment of immigrants’ foreign credentials.</p><p>Originality/value – The agenda I put forth constitutes a novel approach to the study of nativity and country of credentials. The work will extend the expectation states program, and enhance immigration research both theoretically and methodologically.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Martha Foschi) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Selection and Influence in the Assimilation Process of Immigrants http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097514&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030010 <p>Purpose – Empirical studies show substantial variation across immigrants in the rate and direction of assimilation along various dimensions (e.g., cross-ethnic contact, language, identity). To explain this variation, past research has focused on identifying exogenous factors, such as discrimination, human capital, and settlement intention. In this chapter we argue that variation in immigrant outcomes emerges endogenously through positive interaction effects between dimensions of assimilation. We propose a new assimilation model in which processes of social influence and selection into congruent social environments give rise to multiple long-term equilibria. In this model, migrants who are already assimilated along many dimensions tend to also adapt along other dimensions, while less assimilated migrants become more strongly embedded in their ethnic group.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – To test the assimilation model, we derive a number of hypotheses, which we evaluate using trend analysis and dynamic panel regression on data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.</p><p>Findings – The data mostly confirm the hypotheses, providing overall support for the assimilation model.</p><p>Research implications – Our theory and findings suggest that immigrants would follow divergent assimilation trajectories even in the absence of a priori population heterogeneity in external factors.</p><p>Social implications – The positive interaction effects between cultural and structural dimensions of assimilation suggest that mixed policies that promote integration while seeking to prevent loss of identity go against the natural tendency for cultural and structural assimilation to go hand in hand.</p><p>Originality/value – The present chapter proposes a novel model of immigrant assimilation and an empirical test.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Arnout van de Rijt) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Using Simulated Interactions to Explore Emotional Processes and Status Organizing Processes: A Joint Application of Expectation States Theory and Affect Control Theory http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097515&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030011 <p>Purpose – The present chapter expands on recent research demonstrating an empirical link between theoretical constructs within affect control theory (ACT) and expectation states theory. I explore the utility of a joint application of the two theories, employing simulated interactions to examine status organizing processes.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – Although simulation results do not constitute data by which theoretical claims can be tested, they are useful for developing new research questions. I report results from a series of simulated dyadic interactions using ACT’s Interact program to investigate potential emotional and identity processes that underlie the enactment of status differences, and to explore affective responses to the legitimation and delegitimation of status orders.</p><p>Findings – Simulation results call attention to a dynamic interplay between structural elements of the situation and the agentic behavior of interactants, suggesting that behavioral attempts to reduce deflections may lead to shifts in expectations over the course of interaction. Results raise the possibility that differences in affective impressions may produce expectations that are initially asymmetrical between interaction partners. Further, results suggest that the standardized tasks commonly employed in expectation states research may unintentionally generate affective responses that encourage status convergence.</p><p>Originality/value – Drawing on insights and methods from ACT, expectation states researchers can improve the scientific understanding of small group interaction. Employing simulated interactions, researchers can promote theoretical advancement by uncovering new lines of inquiry at the intersection of two prominent social psychological traditions. Simulations also provide a further tool for methodological refinement within the standardized experimental setting.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Joseph Dippong) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Age and the Experience and Management of Emotion http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097516&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030012 <p>Purpose – To determine how the correlational structure of emotion differs for individuals age 60 and above, compared to those under age 60, and to discuss the profound implications these differences may have for the experience and management of emotion.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – Structural equation modeling and shortest path analysis of emotion items from the General Social Survey (GSS)’s (1996) emotions module.</p><p>Findings – Some positive and negative emotion pairs are more distant for individuals over age 60, while others are in fact closer. This variability leads to differences in available shortest paths between emotions, especially when emotional transitions require segueing through intermediary feelings. The segueing emotions most readily available to those over 60 are limited to the poles of affective meaning, whereas those used by ones under age 60 are more variable. The majority of negative emotions are more tightly correlated, whereas the majority of positive emotions are less so, among those over age 60.</p><p>Research limitations/implications – Although the measures are limited to 18 of the 19 emotions recorded by the GSS, and are based on self-report data regarding feelings felt over a period of seven days, these results suggest that attempts at intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion management may differ depending up the age of the actor/object.</p><p>Originality/value – Addresses the need for more nuanced analyses of emotional experience that goes moves beyond simple frequencies. Also suggests potential bridges between sociological and psychological approaches to the study of emotion.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Kathryn J. Lively) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 A Generalized Theory of Conflicting Leader Identity on Group Performance http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097517&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030013 <p>Purpose – This chapter seeks to theoretically answer the question: under which circumstances do groups succeed under female leadership? Further, is it possible to conceptualize the engineering of groups such that group success under female leadership is a likely outcome?</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – In this chapter, I draw on identity control theory (Burke & Stets, 2009; Stets & Burke, 2005) and role congruity theory (Eagly, 2003) to discuss the implications for female leaders of the discrepancy between the female gender identity and the leader identity. Next, I draw upon status characteristics theory (Berger et al., 1972) to further illustrate the negative consequences of being a female leader. Then, drawing on group processes research, I make the explicit link between the negative expectations for female leaders on group performance through the endorsement of group members. Finally, I utilize innovative research using institutionalization of female leadership to propose a possible solution for improving group performance.</p><p>Research implications – I present nine testable hypotheses ready for empirical test.</p><p>Social implications – I propose that training materials underscoring the skills that females have as leaders can subvert the development of conflictual expectations facing female leaders, thus removing the deleterious effects on group performance. That is, if group members receive training that emphasizes the competencies and skills women bring to the group’s task and to the leadership role, then group performance will not be threatened.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Christabel L. Rogalin) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 The ivy and the Trellis: Agency, Biology, and Socialization http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&chapterid=17097518&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030014 <p>Purpose – This chapter presents a theory of socialization that explains cultural transmission while balancing both biological aspects of development and the child’s agency and creativity.</p><p>Design/methodology/approach – This chapter presents a synthesis of research in sociological theory, developmental psychology, and neuroscience. It is roughly divided into two complementary sections based around the metaphor of ivy growing upon a trellis. The discussion centered around the “ivy” utilizes psychological and neuroscience research to explain how early learning is guided by significant others. The “trellis” section synthesizes literature in developmental psychology and social theory to explain how the child’s experience is enframed both cognitively and emotionally in ways that guide the child into appropriate forms of action and feeling. Finally, I discuss how this model can explain other forms of socialization.</p><p>Findings – I propose that the child’s innate capacities and motivations are enframed through significant relationships in order to direct the child’s emergent behavior into sequences of competent action. Isolated competencies are guided into simple and delimited domains of social activity like games and, later, more complex and interpretive structures like paradigms and ideologies.</p><p>Originality/value – This chapter synthesizes research in several literatures in order to develop a new theory that addresses some old questions regarding cultural transmission. Additionally, it represents another step in showing how sociology can integrate research from biological fields without deferring to them.</p> Chapter literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (David Peterson) Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Preface http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097507&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030003 Editorial Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Advances in Group Processes http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097519&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030015 Editorial Board Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Advances in Group Processes http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097520&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030016 Editorial Board Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Advances in Group Processes http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097521&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030017 Editorial Board Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 List of Contributors http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097506&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030002 Index Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Copyright Page http://www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?issn=0882-6145&volume=30&articleid=17097522&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/S0882-6145(2013)0000030018 Miscellaneous Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +0100