Emerald | Journal of Educational Administration | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0957-8234.htm Table of contents from the most recently published issue of Journal of Educational Administration Journal en-gb Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Journal of Educational Administration | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_journal/jeacover.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0957-8234.htm 120 157 A socio-ecological framework of social justice leadership in education http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108967&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-12-2012-0131 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this paper is to present the gap between conceptualizations of social injustices and the desired social transformation that addresses multiple social subsystems and levels on one hand, and social justice leadership that addresses intra-school efforts on the other. The paper aims to expand the conceptualization of social justice leadership and tie it together with concepts of activism and social change. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – The paper adopts a socio-ecological perspective. It reviews works about social justice leadership in education, activism, and social change to present the notion that in light of existing social justice barriers educational leaders should serve as activists in schools and in the community and policy areas. <B>Findings</B> – The paper presents a macro framework, focussing on individual leaders in the field and on the consolidation of intentions, actions, and outcomes in a manner necessary for using social justice as an effective socio-political agenda in a socio-ecological system. <B>Originality/value</B> – The paper presents a conceptual framework which can enable practitioners and researchers to better understand social justice efforts. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Izhak Berkovich) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Development and validity of the Ethical Leadership Questionnaire http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108968&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-10-2012-0110 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – This study had five objectives: explain the initial steps that led to the construction of the Ethical Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ); analyze the items and verify the ELQ reliability using item response theory (IRT); examine its factorial structure with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) approach; test the item bias of the ELQ; assess the relation between the ELQ dimensions and ethical sensitivity. The paper aims to discuss these issues. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – Study 1 and Study 2 involved 200 and 668 respondents, respectively. Step 1 consisted in IRT; Step 2 in CFA and ESEM analysis; Step 3 in invariance of the ELQ items across gender, and Step 4 in structural equation modeling. <B>Findings</B> – Results indicated the presence of the three types of ethic in the resolution of moral dilemmas, validating Starratt's model. The factor structure was gender invariant. Ethic of critique was significantly related to ethical sensitivity. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – More replications will be needed to fully support the ELQ's validity. Given that the instrument may be used in diverse cultural contexts, invariance across cultures would be warranted. <B>Practical implications</B> – As educational organizations become aware of the crucial need for more ethical leaders, they will need to pay particular attention to the ethic of critique as it appears to play a significant role in the development of ethical sensitivity. <B>Social implications</B> – Results presented in this paper answer a vital need for more ethical skills in educational leadership. <B>Originality/value</B> – The ELQ provides a validated measure of Starratt's conceptual framework and highlights the key role played by ethical sensitivity and the ethic of critique. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Lyse Langlois, Claire Lapointe, Pierre Valois, Astrid de Leeuw) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Knowledge influencers: leaders influencing knowledge creation and mobilization http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108969&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-01-2013-0013 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of leaders on knowledge creation and mobilization. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – This mixed methods study included three high-performing districts based on provincial assessment results and socio-economic factors. Interviews and questionnaires were used to gather data from 53 participants including: 11 principals, 11 teacher leaders, 26 teachers, and five system leaders. <B>Findings</B> – The findings of the study emphasized the importance of leaders supporting knowledge creation and mobilization processes through practices such as engaging school-based knowledge influencers and fostering cultures of trust and risk taking. The author defined knowledge influencers as leaders, formal or informal, who have access to knowledge creating groups at the local and system level. These leaders influenced knowledge mobilization at different levels of the district. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – A research limitation of this study was present based on the sole use of high-performing districts and schools. Participation was determined via comparisons of provincial assessment results (Ontario, Canada) and socio-economic status (SES) factors. Although causal effects are cautioned, districts and schools from various SES communities (high, medium, low) were chosen to support broad generalizations and associations. <B>Practical implications</B> – This study provided pragmatic considerations and recommendations for system and school leaders, those charged with increasing student achievement (e.g. use of knowledge influencers and an expanded array of data use while creating knowledge). <B>Originality/value</B> – A knowledge creation model was developed by the author based on a synthesis of the findings. The model and study will be of interest to those wishing to further implement or study the creation and mobilization of knowledge within organizations. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Steven Reid) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 The role of cognitive validity testing in the development of CALL, the comprehensive assessment of leadership for learning http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108970&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-01-2013-0008 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is an online task-based assessment of distributed instructional leadership. In developing CALL, researchers faced the challenge of structuring survey items that would measure leadership practice rather than individual traits. Critical in this work was developing items that accurately reflected current leadership practice. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to pilot the CALL instrument and conducted cognitive validity testing on the instrument. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – CALL researchers piloted the survey in six schools in Wisconsin in order to test and refine the survey instrument. Researchers conducted cognitive walk-through interviews with five participants from each school: principals, associate principals, teachers, department chairs, guidance counselors, and activities directors. The interviews focussed on specific items in order to observe the users’ thought processes and rationale in choosing a response for each item. The researchers focussed on relevancy, clarity, and accuracy of survey items in collecting and analyzing the resulting data. <B>Findings</B> – Three specific survey items were identified that exemplify these challenges and opportunities such as: accessible language, extended leadership, socially desirable responding, 360-degree perspectives, applying appropriate terminology, and identifying appropriate practices. These findings provided insight into survey development work and implications of distributed leadership. The authors discuss the challenges of creating a task-based leadership assessment. <B>Originality/value</B> – Developing a formative assessment of school leadership is valuable in supporting school leaders’ work. The process of utilizing a qualitative approach to develop a quantitative instrument has proven critical in measuring task-based distributed leadership. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Mark H. Blitz, Jason Salisbury, Carolyn Kelley) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Using experience sampling methodology to understand how educational leadership students solve problems on the fly http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108971&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-12-2012-0135 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this paper is to report on a pilot study of the emotional states associated with educational leadership students’ attempts at problem solving “on the fly” in their schools and organizations. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to study 375 “problem-perceiving moments” in leadership students using iPod touches, followed by individual cognitive interviews (CIs). <B>Findings</B> – Students reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation and cognitive engagement when solving new vs old problems. Students experienced both more positive and more negative emotions when attempting to problem solve than when reporting that they were not solving problems, yet lower levels of self-efficacy coupled with insufficient time to reflect on their leadership goals while at work. Consistent with previous research, students reported engaging in metacognitive and reflective activities more frequently while with supervisors and colleagues. In the CIs, students’ narrative descriptions generally supported the quantitative analysis. For example, students described “putting out fires,” and discussed multi-tasking as a deterrent to problem solving. They also talked about balancing the emotional “highs and lows” throughout their day as well as the role of social affirmation in the problem solving process. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – While the limitations of this small pilot study include a small sample using self-report data, the implications for educational leadership faculty are to explicitly integrate psychological research into leadership courses to expand students’ knowledge of creative problem solving and focus on building their self-efficacy. <B>Originality/value</B> – Even though students might not perceive they are good at problem solving, faculty can help them learn how to regulate their emotions and create teamwork conditions for constructively vetting problems. In turn, this kind of instruction and research can enhance leadership students’ persistence as problem solvers, which may help prevent leadership burnout and turnover. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Jen Katz-Buonincontro, Joel M. Hektner) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Principal-teacher high-quality exchange indicators and student achievement: testing a model http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0957-8234&volume=52&issue=3&articleid=17108972&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JEA-05-2012-0056 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – Research findings claim that indicators, representing high-quality exchanges between leaders and followers, are important predictors of organizational effectiveness. There is scarce evidence related to the role of these indicators in student achievement. The purpose of this paper is to test a hypothesized model including three important high-quality exchange indicators. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – Totally, 449 teachers from 166 elementary schools in Tehran provided data on trust in principal and procedural justice and 166 principals provided data on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers. Student achievement was calculated by averaging grade five students’ scores on district examinations in science and math. Data were collected in each school during regularly scheduled meetings and were analyzed using correlation analysis and structural equation modeling. <B>Findings</B> – The hypothesized model has an adequate fit to observed data, supporting the argument that principal-teacher high-quality exchanges provide positive outcomes in the form of student achievement. <B>Originality/value</B> – Since most studies on high-quality exchange indicators are limited to non-educational settings, this study extends this line of inquiry in public schools. It also contributes to school effectiveness literature by providing empirical evidence concerning the link between trust in principal, procedural justice, organizational citizenship behavior, and student achievement. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Hassan Reza Zeinabadi) Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100