Emerald | Journal of Facilities Management | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/1472-5967.htm Table of contents from the most recently published issue of Journal of Facilities Management Journal en-gb Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Journal of Facilities Management | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_journal/jfmcover.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/1472-5967.htm 120 157 Designing and Managing the optimum strategic FM Supply Chain http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-5967&volume=12&issue=4&articleid=17116893&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - the objective of this paper is to overview carefully selected existing literature to enable further analysis directly concerned with FM supply chain structure, components, strategic issues, challenges and risk. Following, the key aspects of assembly, design and most importantly management of FM supply chain are explored so that a guidance design framework can be put forward. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - This paper examines the optimum technique that can be applied by clients and FM service providers where FM functions are outsourced. The paper initially defines the network structure of the FM supply chain and then suggests a conceptual model for making decisions about FM supply chain network at strategy level. Furthermore, the paper argues for both supply chain design and for critical node micro management in a transparent supply chain environment with the FM acting as the strategic lens through which the focus of the supply chain is achieved.<B>Findings</B> - This paper presents a process for designing and making decision of FM service supply chain network. The process begins with an examination of the needs of facility services. It is followed by the step of identifying available options in delivering and processing the services. The third stage involves modeling structures of FM supply chain network. Then to make a final decision, all possible models have to be evaluated for their optimisation, both quantitative (cost) and qualitative (performance). At the end, the model with best optimisation should be selected.<B>Originality/value</B> - This paper proposes a conceptual framework for designing facility service supply chain strategy and configuration to fit with specific nature of facility service demand of a given organisation. The framework featuring a set of processes including examining demand nature, identifying options available and analysing options, is firstly aimed at providing an assisting tool in identifying optimum supply chain network/solution of facility services, and secondly intends to stimulate further discussions on this continuously evolving and challenging market. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Michael Pitt, Sarich Chotipanich, Ruhul Amin, Sittiporn Issarasak) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 The Benefits of Sustainable Office Buildings in People's Republic of China (PRC): Revelation of Tenants and Property Managers http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-5967&volume=12&issue=4&articleid=17116815&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - This paper aims to investigate the benefits derived from sustainable office buildings in PRC through their green features with particular reference to energy efficiency.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - A survey on operating costs, energy impacts, productivities from property managers and tenants of sustainable office buildings was conducted in Shenzhen, PRC. All survey data was collected from a portfolio of 12 sustainable office buildings and from 76 responses out of over 400 tenants who had moved into these buildings from conventional office buildings.<B>Findings</B> - Most tenants were concerned with sustainable operations, practices, and policies. Some of them held that sustainable office buildings contribute to higher productivity and less sick time. These buildings typically consume less electricity and water, and have higher occupancy rates and rents.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - There are only 40 numbers of sustainable office buildings in Shenzhen, our study albeit with proper methodology with 12 numbers of sample buildings may not reflect entirely the attitudes of tenants and property managers of sustainable office buildings in Shenzhen. Advisably, future works can be carried out on a larger scale in other main cities of PRC to obtain a more comprehensive and precise evaluation on which strategic sustainable Central/Local Government policies might be formulated.<B>Originality/value</B> - The concept of facilities management on sustainable buildings, especially on their derived benefits, is relatively new in developing countries such as China. This study is one of the first attempts in this area. In addition, this paper also contributes to existing literature by looking into the green lease provisions and operating policies of these sustainable buildings. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Kak K. Lo, Eddie Chi-man Hui, Kai-xuan Vicky Zhang) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Energy, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Commercial Water Heating Systems http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-5967&volume=12&issue=4&articleid=17116877&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the energy, economic, and environmental performance of commercial water heating systems in Hong Kong SAR, China.<B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The research team contacted 50 facilities managers in Hong Kong and 16 of them agreed to participate in this territorial-wide survey. The overall efficiency of different water heating systems was determined through measurements of inlet water temperatures, outlet steam/water properties, the amount of steam/water produced, and the amount of energy consumed. The cost effectiveness and the amount of greenhouse gases produced per MJ output were also determined.<B>Findings</B> - Results show that electric water heating systems had the highest mean overall efficiency, followed by gas-fired systems and oil-fired systems. However, the difference between the mean overall efficiency of the three types of water heating systems was not statistically significant as the systems had been inspected and maintained regularly. Oil-fired systems were found to be the most cost effective when taking fuel prices into consideration. Environmental analysis showed that gas-fired systems produced the least amount of greenhouse gases per MJ output.<B>Originality/value</B> - Water heating is one of the major uses of energy in buildings. Hence, the efficiency of a water heating system can have a significant effect on the overall performance of a building. This paper not only provides insight on the energy performance, it also evaluates the economic and environmental performance of water heating systems. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (W.M. To, H.K. Hung, W.L. Chung) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 The relation between innovation sources and ICT roles in Facility Management Organizations http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-5967&volume=12&issue=4&articleid=17116969&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research findings on the relation between internal/external sources of innovation and ICT as a supporter/enabler of FM organizations as well as on the strategic orientation towards open innovation of FM organizations. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - Design/methodology/approach – This study uses a qualitative research approach. The data collection includes qualitative semi-structured interviews with key facility management managers and directors and secondary material such as company brochures, reports and information provided on the participating companies’ websites. <B>Findings</B> - Findings – The results show that the FM organizations in the study sample are starting to develop and engage in open FM service innovations, even though they still mostly conduct closed innovation activities. The findings show that FM organizations mostly take an ambidextrous strategic orientation towards FM service innovations, while they also embrace an exploration approach. Concerning the role of ICT in FM service innovations, the study shows that in the explorative organizations ICT was mostly an enabler, while in the ambidextrous organizations ICT mostly supported and enabled the innovations in question. Only in two innovation instances was ICT identified as having a utility role. <B>Practical implications</B> - Practical implications – The findings of this study challenge researchers and managers to rethink how and why a strategic orientation towards innovation, the sources of innovation and the role of ICT might affect service innovation in FM organizations. One important implication for FM managers and researchers is the importance that the government might have as an external source in fostering FM service innovations, especially in light of changing environmental requirements, such as energy consumption. FM managers should also consider how they could use ICT to improve and innovate FM services and service delivery and the kind of sources (external/internal) they should use to carry out this task. <B>Originality/value</B> - Originality/value – This paper contributes to the empirical and theoretical understanding of the sources of innovation and ICT as a supporter/enabler as well the strategic orientation towards innovation in FM organizations. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (ada scupola) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Organising Cleaning in Norwegian Public FM http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-5967&volume=12&issue=4&articleid=17116873&show=abstract <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> - The article aims to give an overview of the alternatives that Norwegian municipalities’ have regarding organisational models for their FM and Cleaning organisations and to investigate what organisational models they apply, if building category or size of municipality influence their use of organisational models and whether their FM and Cleaning organisations are organised similarly within identical municipalities. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The research is based on a National survey conducted during year 2010. All Norwegian municipalities were invited to respond. The survey asked the head of the FM departments (or the chief executive officer if the first could not answer) what organisational models they used for their FM and Cleaning organisations and what changes they planned for the organisation in the future. All questions were asked according to different building categories in order to determine whether building category had any influence on their choices. <B>Findings</B> - Little research has been published regarding the structure of the FM organisations’ in Norwegian municipalities and even less regarding their Cleaning organisations. The results show that Norwegian municipalities prefer integrated models and also purchasing services from the private sector prior to applying decoupled models as inter-municipal alternatives and municipal Limited Companies. The result do also indicate that Norwegian municipalities interest in such models are rising and that they seem to be moving away from traditional and integrated alternatives.<B>Research limitations/implications</B> - Despite all municipalities were invited to the survey 1/3 responded. <B>Originality/value</B> - The article may represent a first thorough overview of what organisational models and what combinations of models that Norwegian municipalities use for their FM and Cleaning organisations. Compared to former studies this article explores a greater variety in organisational models and a greater variety in researched building categories. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Nora Johanne Klungseth) Tue, 26 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100