Emerald | Meditari Accountancy Research | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/2049-372X.htm Table of contents from the most recently published issue of Meditari Accountancy Research Journal en-gb Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited editorial@emeraldinsight.com support@emeraldinsight.com 60 Emerald | Meditari Accountancy Research | Table of Contents http://www.emeraldinsight.com/common_assets/img/covers_journal/medarcover.gif http://www.emeraldinsight.com/2049-372X.htm 120 157 A revenue management perspective of management accounting practice in small businesses http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2049-372X&volume=21&issue=2&articleid=17099324&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/MEDAR-07-2012-0023 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the systematic examination of management accounting practices in small businesses using a revenue management perspective. This highlights the multi-faceted nature of size as a contextual factor and emphasises the role of management accounting in supporting profit-oriented decision-making, rather than its traditional role of co-ordination, control, and accountability. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – The framework is theoretically derived from the management accounting, revenue management, and small business literature. An illustrative case study of a small fast-food business is presented to demonstrate the applicability of this framework to practice. <B>Findings</B> – The paper identifies that various dimensions of business size have different and sometimes opposing effects on management accounting practices. Given heterogeneity is a common feature of small businesses, the framework considers alternative specifications of the size contingency variable. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – The synthesis of small business characteristics and revenue management perspective offers a more incisive understanding of what has traditionally been considered a simple practice. The case study illustrates some of the influences of small business characteristics identified in the framework. Given its narrow scope, the findings are used for theorisation rather than offering generalisable results. Further cross-sectional comparisons of small businesses are needed to confirm size influences. <B>Practical implications</B> – The framework can assist practitioners to gauge the strengths and weaknesses of their management accounting practices and can help assess the value of adopting more sophisticated management accounting practices, given their particular business environment. A synthesis of these small business attributes can help practitioners identify key barriers to implementation. <B>Originality/value</B> – The revenue management perspective and the inclusion of key characteristics of small businesses provide a new approach to evaluating management accounting practices in small businesses. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Frederick Ng, Julie A. Harrison, Chris Akroyd) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Strategic investment decision-making processes: the influence of contextual factors http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2049-372X&volume=21&issue=2&articleid=17099325&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/MEDAR-09-2012-0031 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – This paper aims to examine the relationship between key contextual factors (type of strategic investment decision-making (SIDM), decision uncertainty, organizational goals, financial and non-financial corporate performance, firm size, and decision-maker background) and three significant dimensions of SIDM processes (procedural rationality, strategy formulation and political behaviour). <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – A survey was mailed to the financial directors of manufacturing companies selected from the UK Financial Analysis Made Easy database. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the survey results. <B>Findings</B> – The findings reveal that SIDM is more complex and less systematic than the normative literature suggests, with a combination of contextual factors influencing the decision-making process. Further, the regression results suggest that SIDM is shaped by the interplay of procedural rationality, strategy formulation and political behaviour and that none of these on its own can sufficiently explain SIDM practice. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – The survey data are drawn from UK manufacturing companies, so the findings may not be generalisable beyond that context. <B>Practical implications</B> – The findings suggest a need for firms to recognise that strategy formulation and political aspects of decision-making are as important as “rational” financial analysis in SIDM practice. Further, since SIDM practice is shaped by a combination of contextual factors, a comprehensive overview of these factors is necessary to direct SIDM outcomes. <B>Originality/value</B> – This study adds to the limited prior research examining the links between contextual factors and SIDM processes. Prior studies have tended to focus on only one dimension, or on limited factors, and have reported inconsistent findings. This paper provides a broader view of the complex nature of SIDM processes. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Fadi Alkaraan, Deryl Northcott) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Does accounting construct the identity of firms as purely self-interested or as socially responsible? http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2049-372X&volume=21&issue=2&articleid=17099326&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/MEDAR-09-2012-0030 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this paper is to argue that it is time for change in the way the paper teach, theories and practice accounting. Traditional accounting practice constructs the identity of the accountable entity as purely self-interested. Yet, there is evidence that firms do engage in broader activities. This paper aims to explain and illustrate that there are groups of firms that engage in socially responsible activities, yet their accounting systems still assume autopoietic behavior. Accounting should resonate with social expectations, but at present it does not. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – Literature concerning theories of biological autopoiesis and social equivalents are reviewed. They are related to accounting practices, and to concepts of open and closed systems. The theories are related to survey results of socially responsible activities practiced by firms. National surveys undertaken in New Zealand at three-year intervals are the basis of the empirical content of the paper. <B>Findings</B> – There is evidence that firms behave socially and environmentally responsibly. Yet accounting practice does not encourage such behaviour. Accounting practice has to be able to construct the identity of the accountable entity so that it pursues more than its own self-interest, and resonate with societal expectations. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – The paper is unconventional. It challenges extant practice. Its theoretical content may not appeal to many traditional accountants. <B>Originality/value</B> – The theory and empirics are original. The theory of autopoiesis is illustrated through survey evidence of business practices. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Stewart Raymond Lawrence, Vida Botes, Eva Collins, Juliet Roper) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Ethics training for accountants: does it add up? http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2049-372X&volume=21&issue=2&articleid=17099327&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/MEDAR-06-2012-0020 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – The purpose of this article is to investigate the effectiveness of an International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)-aligned business ethics course in relation to its ability to positively influence the ethical sensitivity of accounting students. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – Using a quantitative, quasi-experimental design, senior accounting students were subjected to a pre- and post-test, measuring ethical sensitivity, with an IFAC-aligned business ethics course as the intervention. Multivariate analysis also focused on the interrelation of demographic characteristics with ethical sensitivity. <B>Findings</B> – The results indicate that the business ethics course was indeed effective in increasing the ethical sensitivity of accounting students. Students' demographic characteristics, in terms of accounting specialisation area and years of work experience, did play a role in the extent of their changes in ethical sensitivity. However, gender and previous ethics education as influencing factor in ethical sensitivity was negated. <B>Research limitations/implications</B> – The study focused on the first component (ethical sensitivity) of Rest's four-component model that predicts ethical behaviour. Additional research is therefore needed into the other components in Rest's model and their respective interrelations. The current study also used a small convenience sample rather than one that was randomly selected. The findings in this study do, however, add to the limited body of evidence on ethical sensitivity in accounting education world-wide. <B>Practical implications</B> – The results can assist accounting professional bodies, associated higher education institutions and accounting firms in implementing specific educational interventions to develop greater ethical sensitivity in prospective and current accountants. <B>Originality/value</B> – The audit failures at the start of this century placed a renewed focus on the ethical behaviour of accountants. Consequently, ethics training was included in the curriculum of aspiring accountants. The research that informed this article attempted to gauge the effectiveness of this response, given the current knowledge gap, specifically in the South African context. Professional accounting bodies, associated higher education institutions and accounting firms could use the curriculum design presented in this study to implement a similar intervention. Such interventions could enhance the ethical behaviour of both prospective and current accountants, and this, in turn, should aid in lessening ethical crises, thus protecting the social stature of the accounting profession. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Adriaan Taylor) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of expensing share-based payments on basic earnings per share of South African listed companies http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2049-372X&volume=21&issue=2&articleid=17099328&show=abstract http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/MEDAR-03-2013-0006 <strong>Abstract</strong><br /><br /><B>Purpose</B> – This study aims to investigate the post-implementation impact of expensing share-based payment transactions on basic earnings per share. In recent years, IFRS 2 was one of the most opposed and controversial standards issued by the IASB. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> – The sample relates to the period immediately after implementation (2006-2009) and consists of the 531 firm-year observations where share-based payments were present among Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed companies. The effect of share-based payments on basic earnings per share is assessed. <B>Findings</B> – The findings of this study show a statistically significant impact on basic earnings per share, but the results are more modest than suggested by prior studies. The number of companies reporting a share-based payment expense increased over the five-year period 2005-2009. <B>Originality/value</B> – The introduction of IFRS 2 caused small but not necessarily immaterial changes to the income profile of companies. This is important for analysts and general users of financial information who need to be aware of these changes. The results also suggest that IFRS 2 did not merely cause accounting policy changes, but has impacted on the way share-based payment transactions are used by companies. Article literatinetwork@emeraldinsight.com (Denice Pretorius, Charl de Villiers) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0000